Inscriere cercetatori

Site nou !

Daca nu va puteti recupera parola (sau aveti alte probleme), scrieti-ne la pagina de contact. Situl vechi se gaseste la adresa old.ad-astra.ro

Facebook

Activitatea profesorului între curriculum şi evaluare

Domenii publicaţii > Ştiinţe sociale + Tipuri publicaţii > Carte

Autori: Vasile Chiş

Editorial: Presa Universitarã Clujeanã, p.263, 2001.

Rezumat:

Competenţa este astãzi principalul criteriu de validare în profesiune, indiferent de conţinutul muncii şi de poziţia cuceritã în ansamblul social.
Prin competenţã profesionalã se exprimã ansamblul componentelor de calificare, definite în mod curent cunoştinţe profesionale, aptitudini şi atitudini necesare unei prestaţii de ţinutã. Aceste componente se însuşesc de viitorii profesionişti în etapele formãrii pentru carierã, dar la debut este de aşteptat sã fie cel puţin configurate într-o structurã aptã de noi acumulãri, graţie experienţei directe pe parcursul exercitãrii profesiei.
Formarea profesorului competent concerteazã dimensiuni variate: pregãtirea academicã, de specialitate, psihopedagogicã, metodologicã şi practicã.
Pregãtirea teoreticã este continuã, iar pe durata carierei aceasta este susţinutã de varietatea experienţelor şi a confruntãrilor şcolare.
Ca profesionist, educatorul contemporan este definit prin trei tipuri de competenţe:
(1) personale (responsabilitate, capacitate de a rezolva probleme, gândire criticã şi creativitate, capacitatea de a iniţia schimbãri, empatie şi toleranţã);
(2) psihopedagogice şi metodologie (cunoaşterea psihologiei elevului, a dezvoltãrii personalitãţii, elaborarea experienţelor de învãţare, comunicarea cu elevii, pãrinţii şi cu ceilalţi actori ai sistemului educaţional, mãsurarea progresiei învãţãrii etc.;
(3). cunoştinţe de specialitate aparţinând ariei de curriculum pe care profesorul o traduce în experienţe de învãţare şcolarã.
Temele încorporate în acest volum sunt aşezate în cuprinsul formãrii iniţiale şi continue a cadrelor didactice. Se propun soluţii la noile provocãri ce ţintesc şcoala aflatã într-o schimbare semnificativã, în trecerea ei de la uni-formã la re-formã, dacã ni se îngãduie aceastã contra-punere de termeni cu multiple semnificaţii şi, fireşte, riscante interpretãri.
Orientãri noi în teoria educaţiei, în practica învãţãrii şi dirijãrii dezvoltãrii au schimbat profund paradigmele pedagogiei contemporane, spre fericire şi în ceea ce ne priveşte. Reforma de curriculum lansatã în 1988 a marcat practic debutul aşteptat al primenirii sistemului educaţional autohton.
Aflat în perimetrul şcolii, dar şi în comunitate, profesorul şi învãţãtorul, educatorul în genere este provocat nu doar de o terminologie mai sofisticatã, ci şi la a dezvolta un exerciţiu modern, o pedagogie practicã, mai eficientã. Oferta ştiinţificã, tradusã în programul şcolii solicitã profesorului itinerarii inedite, noi parcursuri: de la curriculum la evaluare; de la predare la învãţare; de la cunoştinţe la capacitãţi etc.
Primul plan de analizã al lucrãrii (Procesul de învãţãmânt – concept şi practicã) ancoreazã problematica pedagogicã la nivel de macrosistem, acolo unde şcoala se întâlneşte cu comunitatea, cu societatea şi fenomenele sale specifice. Mesajul se construieşte limpede: existenţa profesorului nu depinde doar de disciplina predatã şi de experienţa pedagogicã. Filosofia şi politicile educaţionale, fenomenele sociale aflate în proximitate sau la distanţã îl cuprind necondiţionat, chiar invizibil, fãrã o percepţie transparentã.
La o primã receptare, predarea şi învãţarea şcolarã ar reprezenta lucruri bine fixate în experienţa didacticã. În capitolul al II-lea sunt încorporate întrebãri şi ipoteze menite sã stimuleze re-evaluarea continuã a practicii instructiv-educative: Care sunt confruntãrile profesorului în sala de clasã: transmite informaţii gata fãcute sau construieşte experienţe de învãţare? Care este structura optimã a secvenţei de predare şi cum se traduce oferta profesorului în progresia cognitivã a elevului? În ce condiţii se dezvoltã relaţia pedagogicã profesor – elev şi când apar decalaje cognitive, emoţionale, atitudinale etc.
Curriculumul şi dimensiunile sale teoretice şi practice, bine situate în concepte şi experienţe concrete, capãtã forţa de a re-proiecta activitatea didacticã în mod global şi total. Date fiind elementele de noutate, precum şi inexactitãţile şi ezitãrile inerente unei experienţe de debut, capitolul al III-lea articuleazã concepte şi exemple menite sã sprijine slujitorii şcolii într-un asemenea proiect. Invitãm cititorul la o lecturã atentã, dublatã de evaluarea propriilor atitudini şi practici, spre decantarea soluţiilor optime în proiectarea diverselor tipuri şi arii curriculare.
Realizarea curriculumului eficient devine o problemã de instrumentare pedagogicã: metodologicã şi tehnologicã deopotrivã. Activitatea didacticã încorporeazã un suport metodologic variat şi flexibil; evoluţia ştiinţei şi a practicii sociale oferã şcolii noi modele de proiectare şi dirijare a experienţelor de învãţare. Plasat în interfaţa dintre tehnologie şi metodologie (cap.IV), profesorul este stimulat sã asume proiecte educaţionale de concepţie şi acţiune efectivã.
Mãsura lucrului fãcut bine sau mai puţin bine, datã de rezultatele evaluãrii didactice (cap.V) reprezintã principala sursã a unei practici novatoare, de dezvoltare profesionalã continuã. Evaluarea didacticã este în principal prilejul introspecţiei de sine, ca educator şi pedagog, apoi o provocare sistematicã la cunoaşterea elevului şi, în sintezã, un program de concertare a întregului câmp de influenţe instructiv-educative.
În finalul lucrãrii (cap.VI) sunt încorporate date privind funcţionarea şcolilor experimentale universitare în învãţãmântul contemporan, tradiţiile şi noutãţile oferite de aceste instituţii în formarea iniţialã şi continuã a personalului didactic.
Rostul publicãrii acestei cãrţi este pentru autor acela de a comunica o stare de reflecţie şi experienţã personalã, dar mai ales dorinţa de a satisface nevoi de cunoaştere ale profesioniştilor dedicaţi domeniului. Sugestiile dumneavoastrã asupra zonelor de interes în pedagogia şcolarã vor asigura feedback ul necesar pentru îmbunãtãţirea continuã a ofertei didactice.
Vã invitãm, aşadar, la dialog, într-o formulã rapidã şi interactivã (e-mail sau poşta electronicã) cu o cuprindere în continuã lãrgire în reţeaua şcolarã. Mesajul dumneavoastrã va fi receptat cu interes la urmãtoarele adrese

vasichi@psiedu.ubbcluj.ro
sau
Chis.v@personal.ro

Autorul

Teacher’s activity between curriculum and evaluation
– Summary –

The training of a competent teacher involves various dimensions: the academic, specialty, psycho-pedagogical, methodological and practical training. The theoretical training is an on going one and during the career it is supported by the variety of experiences and school confrontations.
Three types of competencies define the today educator as a professional:
-Personal competencies (responsibility, problem-solving competencies, critical thinking and creativity, the capacity of initiating changes, emphatic capacity and tolerance);
-Psycho-pedagogical and methodological competencies: (the knowledge on pupil’s psychology and on the development of personality, learning experiences elaboration, communication with pupils, parents and other actors of the educational system, measurement of learning progression etc.);
-Field knowledge of the curriculum area that the teacher translates into school learning experiences.
The issues raised within this volume are from the sphere of the initial and continuing teacher training. New solutions are offered to the challenges addressed to a school found into a significant change, passing from the uni-form to the re-form, if we are allowed this contraposition of terms that bear multiple significations and, certainly, risky interpretations.
New orientations within the theory of education, the practice of learning and of development conduct, profoundly changed the paradigms of the contemporary pedagogy, and happily this implied us, too. The curriculum reform initiated in 1998 practically marked the expected start of the Romanian educational system renewal.
Belonging to the school perimeter as well as to the community, the teacher, the educator, generally speaking, finds a challenge not only within a more sophisticated educational terminology but also in developing a modern exercise, a practical and more efficient pedagogy. The scientific offer, translated into the school programme requires new itineraries: from the curriculum to evaluation; from teaching to learning; from learning information to creating competencies.
The first plan of analyses taken by the present work (The educational process- concept and practice, Chapter I) anchors the pedagogical issues to the macro-systemic level, the place where school meets the community, the society and its specific phenomena. The message comes out clearly: the existence of teacher doesn’t depend exclusively on the taught subject matter and on his pedagogical experience. The educational philosophy and politics, the social phenomena going on in proximity or at the distance unconditionally include him, without a clearly expressed perception, quite invisibly.
The attention is focused on the syntagm: educational process, a syntagm that is acknowledged within the contemporary didactic research. The description of the educational process implies two main plans: the systemic approach, more precisely the reference of the process to its integrative system and the componential and functional analysis that includes its internal structure, the components of the educational process and, finally, its main approaches or activities: teaching – learning – evaluation.
Apparently, teaching and learning would represent two very well settled actions within the didactic experience. The second chapter holds questions and hypothesis meant to stimulate the continuing re-evaluation of the instructive-formative practice: Which are teacher’s jobs in the classroom: to offer ready-made information or to create learning experiences? Which is the optimal structure of a teaching sequence and how is the teacher’s offer translated into pupil’s cognitive progression? In which conditions the teacher – pupil relationship develops and when the cognitive, emotional, attitudinal disparities occur.
The analysis takes into account mainly the three categories of interacting activities:
– the projection of didactic activity
– the accomplishment of teaching and the leading of the learning process
– the didactic evaluation
The area of teacher’s activities is certainly larger and it is not limited strictly to didactic components. There are a series of complementary activities as part of his professional duty: consulting/guidance and support for the pupils and parent; activities of creation on the benefit of school, pupils’ class and teaching of the subject-matter; administrative activities; services for the community; participation to the social life etc.
The postwar period marked a continuous separation between the paradigms of the sciences of education promoted within the western cultures and East-European cultures found under the control of the communist regimes. The structure reform, developed within the western and over the ocean educational systems, after the years 40, stimulated numerous conceptual and methodological innovations, a context that involves also the vast problem of curriculum The topic of curriculum, as theory and practice faced the systematic resistance from „The Socialist Pedagogy”, the necessary opening occurring only after 1990, and mostly after 1996.
Under these conditions the need for a theoretical outline and moreover the spreading of the curricular projects in the school system are actions that cannot be successful unless doubled by ample theoretical debates and practical experience validated in practice.
The curriculum and its theoretical and practical dimensions, well settled in concepts and concrete experiences, has the power to re-design the didactic activity in a global manner. Given the novelty elements, but also the inaccuracies and hesitations inherent for a beginning experience, chapter III articulates concepts and examples meant to offer support to the teaching staff involved into such a project.
The development of an efficient curriculum becomes a problem of adequate pedagogical methodology and technology. The educational activity involves a diverse and flexible methodological support; the evolution of science and social practice offer schools new models for the design and conduct of the learning experiences. Placed on the interface between the technology and methodology (Chapter IV), the teacher is invited to create and put into action new educational projects.
The concept of didactic technology generated within our pedagogical literature of 70’s-80’s ample theoretical debates as well as numerous interesting school experiments. There was that period when didactic laboratories were created in the university and pre-university school system, labs holding the new technical means of instruction too easily equalized with the didactic technology.
An up- to- date evaluation reveals the fact that apparently in the 70’s-80’s the paradigm of technology in education was assimilated with a divided didactic scenario:
– The lesson plan aimed to the shape of a Project of didactic technology.
Though in teacher’s usual documents the concepts of projection and technology were assimilated, the lesson plan and the current activity in the classroom conserved roughly the stages and contents of the traditional didactics.
– The lesson with a modern didactic technology was acknowledged as a final solution for the drawbacks of the classical lesson focused on speech, explanation and demonstration. The evaluation of lesson’s efficiency used to place the technological component above the authentic learning experiences.
Today, the topic of didactic technology and its applications within the educational system is casted out in our literature, though the contemporary educational systems offer numerous debates and reappraisals, mainly provoked by the development of multi-media in education (e.g. Information Technology [IT]).
Finally, the measure of the (more or less) well-done thing given by the results of the didactic evaluation (Chapter V) is the main source of an innovative practice and of a continuing professional development. The didactic evaluation firstly represents the occasion of a self -introspection as educator and pedagogue, then a systematical challenge for getting knowledge on pupils and, synthetically a joint programme that involves the whole field of instructive-formative influences.
The educational process integrates a series of activities among which standing out are: teaching, learning and evaluation. Teacher’s activity – teaching – and that of the pupil – learning is continuously objectivated by the interface created by the obtained results. Thus this interface contains the relevant information on the acts of the two agents of the school activity
The importance of school assessment within the educational process is legitimated by the following findings:
– The teaching act implies aims, instructive and formative objectives and
pupil’s performances show the degree of their accomplishment.
– The evaluation of scholastic results offers the teacher the opportunity to
optimally restructure the didactic approach.
– The didactic assessment actions hold a significant weight, until 40% of teacher’s activities.
Thus, the didactic evaluation holds an important role within the educational process. It always has a direct or indirect relationship with the progress in both teaching and learning.
The experimental school draws the attention on the issue of initial and continuing teacher training through numerous national educational projects. Chapter VI describes the traditions and the novelty promoted by the currents of the experimental pedagogy in our country and all over the world. The experience acknowledged within the contemporary educational systems justifies the re-establishment of the experimental schools in our school system.
The succession of chapters and the topics’ portfolio outline actual concerns within which the didactic itineraries are complementary. The teaching offer aims at the progression of scholastic learning. The curriculum condenses the school learning experiences and the evaluation allows the pedagogical approach to stay in tune. All these invite the teaching stuff to reflection, assessment and comparison with a view to the sorting out of their own working strategies.

Cuvinte cheie: Învãţãmânt, proiectare curriculum, predare, învãţare, evaluare // Teaching, Curriculum Design, Learning, Assessment

URL: http://ad-astra.ro/vasichi