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Domenii publicaţii > Fizica + Tipuri publicaţii > Articol în revistã ştiinţificã

**Autori**: Prof. Vasile Tudor

**Editorial**: 2011.

**Rezumat**:

Elements of dialectic thinking have been present since the Antiquity, especially for some Greek philosophers (Heraclit of Efes, Platon, Aristotel), who have noticed the universal connection of phenomena, the continuous movement and transformation of matter, of course, within the limits of the poor level of reality cognition at that time. The dialectic tradition in reality cognition was promoted by numerous other minds, among which Hegel particularly remarks himself, a personality of the classic German philosophy which presented the principles and general categories of the becoming of existence. Unlike metaphysics, which presents the reality phenomena unconnected to each other, immutable, lacking internal contradictions, dialectics takes into account the dialectic diversity, the interdependency and interaction of the material systems, comprehending the becoming of existence from the perspective of some fundamental laws, expressed concisely through the unity and opposition of contrasts, turning qualitative changes into quantitative changes, as well as the negation of the negation. The explanation for the becoming of existence must be reported to the universal dialectic law of unity and contrast conflict. The term of contrasts must be understood as aspects or opposite internal tendencies of the structural elements and processes that coexist, but are mutually exclusive, being the causes of the becoming of existence. In the 17th century, René Descartes developed a theory of vortices for cosmology and the composition of the universe, where he presented the mechanism of the solar system.

The vortex theory of matter is an innovative scientific conception , which explains in a unified vision the elementary structures and fundamental interactions within Universe. As a starting point in the cognitive process, the known Gauss’s theorem is taken into account, which asserts that the intensity flow of the electric field through a closed surface is directly proportional to the electric charge contained in the interior. Similarly, the intensity flow of the gravitational field through a closed surface is directly proportional to the substance mass contained in the interior. These assertions can be easily proven, based on the inversely proportional dependence with the square of the distance, the intensities of the electrostatic and gravitational fields generated by elementary particles. The in-depth analysis of the significance of these assertions highlights the field sources, which can be positive (springs) or negative (wells), however the “appearance”, respectively the “disappearance” of the involved particles remain unexplained. It is a suggestion for the introduction of the vortex concept, as a bridge between matter and antimatter, but also as a unitary model for the structuring of existence in a Universe characterized by dynamism, duality and symmetry. The vortex is travelled by the universal particles that quantify existence on its deepest level. By conceiving the vortex as a fundamental structure of existence, the concepts of substance and force fields are approached unitarily, as well as the fundamental laws of physics, which acquire a coherent explanation, both intuitive and abstract – through concise mathematical models. The universal particles interact together merely through random collisions, in which the laws of preservation of kinetic energy, mechanical impulse and kinetic moment are observed. It should be reminded that the preservation laws accept an interesting approach within analytical mechanics, being intrinsically connected to the homogeneity and the isotropy of space, as well as to the uniformity of time, through the so-called symmetry operations (translation in space, space rotation, translation in time). According to Noether’s theorem, in an isolated system, for each symmetry operation there is a corresponding preservation law for a physical quantity. For example, out of the invariance of Lagrange’s function towards the infinitesimal translations in space, the infinitesimal special rotations and the infinitesimal translations in time, result the laws of preservation of the mechanical impulse, the kinetic moment, respectively of the total mechanical energy. In a classical approach, one may consider that, between two consecutive collisions, the universal particles move rectilinearly and uniformly at the speed of light in a void. The vortex theory is intrinsically connected to the theory of relativity, but also to the quantum theory, the collisions between the universal particles being random processes. When the quantum theory is applied, a more difficult but rigorous approach, then the behavior of the universal particles is described in terms of probability, the notion of trajectory loses its meaning, as it results from Heisenberg’s uncertainty equations. Due to the fact that the movement mass and the speed module of the universal particle are constant, the uncertainty in determining the components of the mechanical impulse and the space positioning coordinates are connected to the uncertainties in determining the direction of movement. In other words, the universal particle is a unit of contraries, that expresses the continuity and discontinuity of the objective reality on a quantum level, and the behavior overall, in terms of probability and statistical mediation, ensures the homogeneity and isotropy of space, as well as the uniformity of time. However, for the simplifying of the equation, the classical approach is preferred, being intuitive and not significantly vitiating the results of the vortex theory of existence. It can be assumed that the shape of the universal particles is spherical, when they do not have their own rotation movement, and respectively ellipsoid (a slightly flattened sphere), when they rotate around the central axes, as a result of the centrifugal force, which is a complementary inertial force, introduced in non-inertial reference systems so that the fundamental principle of dynamics has the same shape as in the case of inertial ones. The rotation movement around an object’s own axis is characterized by the spin kinetic moment vector. The universal particles with non-zero spin kinetic moment have their rotation axis displayed perpendicularly on the direction of movement, in which case the frequency of frontal collisions reaches an extreme value of relative minimum, which ensures a state of stable balance. The plane perpendicular on the direction of movement is preferential for the rotation axis of the universal particle, any orientation in this plane being possible. Of course, any other orientation of the rotation axis from the direction of movement is possible, but that state is unstable, having a negligible probability. The universal particles without spin kinetic moment are in a state of indifferent balance. By applying the known preservation laws, it is found that, in the collision processes between two universal particles they interchange the speed and mechanical impulse vectors. In the manner stated in newtonian mechanics, the mass is a measure of a random particle’s inertia at the changing of the linear speed vector. Similarly, the electrical charge q of a universal particle, having the spin kinetic moment perpendicular on the direction of movement, can be interpreted as an algebraic measure of its inertia at the changing of the rotation axis direction in the preferential plane. The + or – sign of the electrical charge is correlated with the two rotation directions of the rotation axis in the preferential plane. Furthermore, the u , u notations are used for the universal particles with positive, respectively negative electrical charge, and u is the symbol for a neutral universal particle. There is a diversified range of vortexes, which are different from each other through the type of universal particles involved, the manner of structuring and the direction of travelling of the space-time configuration. On principle, any combination of universal particles (u , u , u ) is possible, however, its stability depends on the existence probability of the respective configuration. This explains the existence of some stable elementary particles, but also of the resonances with very short average life time. By all account, in electrostatics, the same sign electrical charges mutually reject themselves, and in electrokinetics, the electrical currents with the same direction mutually attract themselves. It is a suggestion for the acceptance of the hypothesis that the probability of configuring a simple vortex with universal particles of the same type is maximum, compared to other possible combinations. With reference to the structuring manner of a vortex, the configuration analysis must be correlated with the movement of the vortex. Hypotheses for the shaping of the resting elementary particles are proposed in order to simplify the equation. Other than the simple vortex, characterized by a distribution with spherical symmetry of the universal particles, there can be complex vortexes, made up of partial vortexes, convergent or divergent, with the same symmetry axis or with distinct symmetry axes. It is a challenge for the scientific research to find the vortex associated with each elementary particle, through the thoroughness of knowledge on a deepest level. It seems that the electron is an association of universal particles of the u type, in a simple divergent vortex, and the proton is a vortex made up of partial vortexes corresponding to the three p(uud) quarks. The vortex theory can offer a simple explanation for the strong interactions, without needing to introduce some virtual particles, for example, the virtual mesons for the interaction between nucleons. If the validity of the p(uud) and n(udd) structure models is accepted for the proton and neutron, then the hypothesis that the associated complex vortexes include convergent partial vortexes for the d type quarks and divergent partial vortexes for the u type quarks should be sufficient. Considering the fundamental principle that the convergent vortexes attract each other and the divergent ones reject each other, it can be concluded that in a combination of nucleons, that form an atomic nucleus, the neutrons ensure, overall, the force of attraction between the component particles. Moreover, the short range of action of the nuclear forces is explained, which are saturation forces. Developing the reasoning, the enigma that the number of neutrons in a nucleus is equal or higher than the number of protons can be explained. By following this logic, one can find the explanation for the limited number of chemical elements in the Universe. The stability of the nuclei, assessed through the connection energy on the nucleon, increases by the mass number for light nuclei, reaches a maximum of approximately 8,5 MeV, in the area of intermediary mass nuclei, after which it decreases progressively down to uranium, where it reaches the approximate value of 7,5 MeV. The weak interactions must be approached in a similar manner – through complex vortexes in which the weight of the convergent partial vortexes is close to the weight of the divergent partial vortexes. Of course, on this level of approach of the vortex theory, only the simplified model of the fundamental hypotheses correlation can be presented. Ultimately, the experimental research constitutes the validation of the innovative hypotheses in the development of science, especially when this theory is open to troubling existential enigmas. In conclusion, this becoming of existence model is conceived in a dialectic vision of processes and phenomena connection on a large scale, without neglecting the processes taking place at the border between matter and antimatter, where each particle in our Universe is the “mirrored reflection” of an antiparticle in the complementary Universe. Prof. Vasile Tudor

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