Scopul nostru este sprijinirea şi promovarea cercetării ştiinţifice şi facilitarea comunicării între cercetătorii români din întreaga lume.
Autori: Vasile Tudor
Editorial: Ad Astra, 2011.
The cancer has made a lot of victims, and unfortunatelly he still continues to do this, without being stopped by the medicine. Beside cardiovascular diseases and HIV infection, the issue of cancer belongs first of all to the field of public health and scientifical medical research on which solving take part General Biology, Molecular Biology, Biochemistry, Biophysics, Immunology, Endocrinology, Virology, human clinic, and so on. The cancer is an evolutive disease produced by various pathological agents (ionizing radiations, chemical carcinogens, oncogenic viruses) which alter the reglator genes of the cellular cycle.
Among the implicative environmental causes there are mentioned:
– ionizing radiations [undulatory (X, γ), corpuscular and (e, p)];
– synthetic or natural chemical substances [tobacco, alcohol, arsenic and its cognates, chromium and its cognates, benzidine, benzene, chlornaphazine, melphalan, yperite, vinil chloride (mustard gas)];
– RNA viruses (oncarnaviruses) but also DNA viruses (Papova viruses, herpes viruses, pox viruses, adenoviruses);
– Germs (corynebacteria) and some of the parasites (protozoa and helmits).
Like carcinogens, the viruruses can produce malignant mutations, rather being a causal latent agent, than an active one. It is being supposed that the viruses are present in the cells in a passive state, and the virulent action is stimulated by some external agents (radiations and oncogene substances) or internal (genetic mutations, mutations of the metabolism or of the hormonnal balance). According to some specialists, the oncogene substances are increasing the amount of mutations in the damaged tissues, by rendering them a selective advantage in the process of cell growth regulation, as resulted in some demographic genetic studies. There are some fears as the fact that some surface-active agents, used as launders or alimentary additives can act as activating agents in the process of developing cancer. The cancer can appear in various forms and it is favoured by stress and an inadequate lifestyle. He produces chaos in the organism, by altering the natural biological configurations and by intervening into the pathway of evolution which is inscribed in the genetic programme. The oncogenic cells are anarchical proliferating and can give birth to localized tumors (benign and malignant), or they can spread to other locations through metastasis. The tumors have a common feature, the abnormalities that are formed because of the abnormal cellular proliferation. If the benign tumors are relatively harmless, having a slow strictly localized evolution, exceptional reappearances and a high-level of histocitologic differentiation, the malignant tumors are characterized by a rapid growth, local invasion, local and zonal spreading, lack of cell differentiation, reappearance after surgeries, frequently leading to the death of the patient, especially when they are not treated on time. Of course, the etiology of the cancer, its diagnosis and treatment are strictly connected to the researches performed in order to find out the immunologic differences between malignant and normal cells. It is largely considered that the proteic specific substances, which give identity to cells, are being altered by carcinogen agents, the outcoming configurations being self-reproductive. The anti-bodies are coming in, but they become harmless as they adapt. It is even possible that the malign cell not to be recognized by the adjusting growth mechanisms and they can proliferate without control. In cancer diagnosis, except the clinical scanning, it is made the histologic examination of a tissue sample (biopsy) collected from the neoplasm. The citologic exam is based on the morphological alteration of the cells (nuclear, citoplasmatic, of mass and shape), using impecabil techniques of harvesting (by exfoliation and puncture), fixation and colouring (the Papa Nicolau and May-Gründwald-Giemsa methods), the analysis under the optic microscop, sometimes supplemented by specific methods such as fluorescent microscopy or phase contrast microscopy. At the present moment there is the possibility of precociously detecting the cancer by emphasizing some biological indicators related to tumors (malignant „marker”) such as [regular substances exceedingly synthetised (hormones, enzymes, proteins), oncofetal or differentiation substances (CAE, AFP, POA, CALA, EMA), tumor specific transplantation antigen (TSTA) or tumor-associated transplantation antigen (TATA), chromozomial alteration (Philadelphia chromozome) and so on]. The fight against cancer has to be efficiently organized, by applying some mass diagnosis tests, such as the so called Schultz-Dale test, which consists in the tracking down the antigen components in the blood of those who suffer from neoplazic affections.
A sanitary education is also necessary for the population which must ask for medical care as soon as the characteristic symptoms are present. Although there have been tremendous efforts and a great deal of research, the cancer mechanisms are still a puzzle and at the present moment there is no efficient form of treatment against all its forms of manifestation. The interferon and anti-cancer vaccines can only increase the hull resistance or slow the cancerous cell division. Chemotherapy and radiation therapy are frequently used, although chemical drugs and the X-rays harm not only the cancerous cell, but also the healthy tissue, they lead to immuno suppression, skin rashes and complications, sterility and congenital malformations. Microwave therapy has less harmful effects, but it is less efficient. In some extreme situations one can have his body mutilated and an emotional impact on the personality as a result to the surgeries meant to eradicate the malignant tumors. In the cancer treatment, surgery and radiation therapy only can not be considered long term solutions, although some technical improvements are to be expected. It has been proven experimentally that irradiation is more efficient in the presence of certain oxygen concentrations. The researchers are relying on the destruction of cancerous cells through chemotherapy or by using the immune mechanism. At the present, in chemotherapy there are used the metabolic antagonists of the purine and of nucleic acids such as fluoro-5-uracil, fluoro-5-deoxyuridine and aza-6-uracil or even alkylation agents based on chloroethylamine and triethylenemelamine (TEM). In order to administrate a high dose of antimitotic drugs without affecting the bone marrow cells, a local perfusion is being applied, due to an extracorporeal circulation. The combination between an antimitotic agent and irradiation gives better results in comparison with each of these means are used individually. The research on irradiation side-effects and on the use of substances that harm the metabolic processes of the cancerous cells are being enhanced especially by obstructing the Krebs cycle or by oxidation of hexose monophosphate. During their growth the cancerous cells are using glutamine which provides some elements of the nucleic acids. Glutamine antagonists together with immunisation mechanisms of the body, can contribute to cancerous cells’ destruction, especially when irradiation is applied or high oxygen concentrations are used. Chemotherapy does its best in exploiting the significant differencies between the nucleic acids of the cancerous cells and the regular ones, such as order of the pyrimidic bases. It is well known that DNA molecules of nucleic acid form a double helic strand, having the pyrimidic bases oriented in the inside, while on the outside are arranged the dezoxy-2-D-ribofuranosis and its corresponding phosphate, ensuring its stability through hydrogen bondings. The chemical agents which attack the modified nucleotide groups or disturb the coupling of nucleic acids bases in the carcinogene cells, are both offering new possibilities for chemotherapy and hope for important advances in the battle against cancer eradication. In the near future, the cancer therapy might benefit from products based on bacteria and parasite fungus, such as those that lead to plant cancer, or even on the extracts from outgrowth („gale”) occured on leaves due to the insects stings. This hypothesis is based on the studies published in 1982 by Helen Coley Nauts from Cancer Research Institute Inc. New York, concerning the role of bacterial infections upon the cancer therapy.The [***] author tries to establish a connection among bacterial infections and the interferon secretion, plus the positive effect of fever in the cancer thermotherapy. An interesting point of view is the assumption that bacteria are fighting against the growth of cancer cells by using iron, wich is indispensible for the development of cancer cells. Therefore, it is mandatory to study the disease incompatibility in order to obtain optimum results with applications in therapeutics. A new approach in cancer therapy is based upon the relationship between the genetic program and the division-biostructuring orientation spindle. It is normal that an alive structure to be built on the ordered cells arrangement as basic units. This arrangement is dictated by the program schemes of the division spindle orientation, in direct correlation with the division and cytodistinction frequencies. Moreover, bioinformation is materialising in structures and functions, but the mutual influence has also to be watched over. Let’s not forget that through the resulted products, the genetic program is related to its own hystory. The reversed connection ensures accuracy, optimacy and movement to the next sequency. The action of some aggressive factors from physical and chemical ones to riboviruses, on the triple genetic relation information – structure – function, might lead to malignacy because the cell enters in an „infinite cycle” wich determines a tragic end. Experimentally was found that a polyphasic field configuration, such as the one produced by the rack of an asynchronous electric engine having adjustable frequency is extremely useful in intensive medical therapy of many diseases, because it shuffles the electroconducting biological liquids, favours the ion exchange, selectively eliminates ill cells, orientates the division spindle, activates and warms up the tissues. The physical parameters of an electromagnetic field created by the complex stationary instruments or by personal electromagnetic belts with incorporated electrical source can be adjusted and optimised using special automatisation and calculation techniques. The electrical windings design rules, known in the asynchronous engines technology, may be applied in this case to obtain various configurations from rotational field to such forms as linear and helical ones. In order to reduce the overall size and to help body fit of the equipment, can be used windings realised from the flexible conductors or imprinted circuits, well isolated, inserted into segmented sacks that contain ferromagnetic material dust or even ferrofluids, for the electromagnetic field intensification. Besides the previously presented method, the author brings into the specialists attention, an innovator solution for cancer treatment, based on an ultraintensive local procedure that allows healing of ill organs and tissues, with minimum of secondary effects on the entire body. Nowadays the methods of drug administration such as oral, perfusions, intravenous, intramuscular and hypodermic injections are well known. Nevertheless although these methods are easy to apply, they exhibit the risk of serious side reactions, manifested as various anatomic-physiological affections (fever, diarrhoea, nausea, queasiness, abdominal pains, stomatitis, skin eruptions, trembling, convulsions, apnoea, bronhospasm, photosensibilisation, cardiac disorders, hepatic and renal diseases, bone growth and haematopoiesis inhibition, sterility, muscular weakness, anaemia and so on). The alternative solution proposed eliminates these disadvantages, since the ultraintensive treatment method is applied locally, only on the affected area by including the ill organ or tissue in an extrabody sanguine circuit fitted with an complex medical instrument, having not only a therapeutic role but also to ensure the necessary environment for the normal functioning of the biological processes. Using this method, one can gain the following advantages:
– use of ultraintensive therapy by increasing the administrated drug doses;
– protection of healthy body parts against the negative effects of some drugs;
– decrease the risk of exposure to some drugs having certain counter indications;
– local stimulation of immune system and use of antibodies as transfer vectors for physico-chemical factors having destructive action against pathogenic agents.
AIDS is a disease caused by the HIV (Human Immunodeficiency Virus), an retrovirus witch destroys the T lymphocytes and seriously damages the immune system. HIV has the genome composed of to two RNA chains included in a glycoprotein envelope of spherical shape, having a large antigen power. The viral RNA molecules are capable to dictate the DNA synthesis, using it to replicate. The immune system of the organism strongly reacts against HIV by producing antibodies. However, the invader viruses, when attacked by the antibodies become more virulent, are multiplying rapidly and infect a larger and larger number of healthy cells, specially the microphage ones. The prophylaxy difficulties of AIDS are also determined by the existence of the virus genetic variations that change permanently, even in the same infected person. Actually, for the treatment of this disease are used drugs that block the activity of reverse transcriptase enzyme, witch plays an essential role in the viral DNA synthesis or hampers the integration of viral DNA among the infected cells, as for example azidatymidine (AZT) and shiitak (LEM). In the following part is presented an example of ultraintensive treatment method application shows the scheme for the treatment of a disease localised on a certain organ). The therapeutic scheme is based on the idea of creating a secondary sanguine circuit for the ill organ O, by connecting the A artery and the vein V to the medical installation M with the aid of 4 tubes T1, T2, T3 and T4 fitted with serringe needle S1, S2, S3 and S4, or other devices on the terminals. The separation between the secondary sangvin cycle and the circulatory system of the organism is obtained using the blocking devices D1, D2 by pressing the veins. The medical installation M has not only a therapeutic role, but also to ensure the necessary environment for the normal functioning of the biological processes and it is equipped with technical means for radiotherapy, chemotherapy, thermotherapy and also with devices and instruments for the feeding with glucose, dialysis or even and artificial heart and lung. There are two possibilities for applying this treatment procedure (in an unautonomous regime, respectively an autonomous one). In the unautonomous regime the secondary sanguine cycle communicates with the circulatory body system. The blood, that carries the nutritive substances and oxygen, is transported by A artery through the S1 needle and delivered through the T1 tube to the M medical installation where the proper treatment (disease specific) is administered (after receiving treatment, the blood continues his way through the T2 tube and the S2 needle to the ill organ). Through the S3 needle and T3 tube, the blood returns to the medical installation M. From here, the drugs and the catabolism products are eliminated by dialysis, and reach to the circulatory body system through the T4 tube and the S4 needle. In the autonomous regime, the secondary sanguine cycle is isolated from the circulatory body system. In this case, the secondary cycle (previously nourished with healthy compatible blood) forms a closed curl O-S3-T3-M-T2-S2-O (the symbols are enclosed as shown, without further comments). The autonomous regime is characterised by a high therapeutic efficiency, although it is more complex because the installation has to ensure not only the proper treatment (allopathic, alternative, thermic, by irradiation and so on) but also the artificial optimised environment for the development of biological processes, without affecting the ill organ. During the treatment, the medical installation M takes over the functions of heart, lung and kidneys by using the constitutive instruments. The drugs are administrated at the same time with glucose, in specific dose of active substance per body kilogram higher than the ones used in current medicine, in order that the therapeutic effect to be more intense and rapid. This is possible because the area where the adverse reactions of drugs take place is much more reduced. The only restriction of this method is that the administered dose to be 1,5 to 3 times lower than the minimum lethal dose supported by the ill organ. The carcinogen cells may be destroyed by applying satisfactory higher concentrations of drugs prescribed by the specialist. In the case of an organism infected with HIV, the medical installation is connected to the principal veins of the circulatory system for the entire amount of blood to be circulated periodically through the instruments where receives the suitable treatment (drug administration, physical factors action and so on). The ill cells are targets for the antibodies produced by the plasmocytes from the blood. Specialists in medicine estimates around one million of different plasmocyte lines that originate from a common cellular source existing in the spleen. Each plasmocyte clone produces monoclonal antibodies for a single antigenic determinant. It worth to be mentioned that monoclonal antibodies can be produced „in vitro” by the hybridions cultures in much larger quantities and can be further used and inoculated into the blood. In addition to the important role played in the body defence, the antibodies can be used for the early diagnosis of certain diseases, but also as transfer vectors for drugs, toxins or radioactive isotopes. Thus the antitumour antibodies can be coupled with anticoagulant drugs such as metoraxate, ricine and so on. Unfortunately, in order to not denature the antibodies the amount of drugs that may be used for coupling is very small. To overcome this disadvantage, usually are used liposomes (small lipid vesicles that can be attached to the antibodies through covalent bonds). The antibodies guide the liposomes coupled with drugs, to the target tumour cells. Another way to increase the antibodies effectiveness is their coupling with very powerful natural toxins. The natural toxin is protean in its nature and contains two chains, one witch gives the toxicity, and another one that dictates the penetration into the cell. The chains responsible for the toxicity, if isolated, loose this capacity because they cannot penetrate into the cells. But if coupled with antibodies, they enter selectively into the target cell. In order to destroy the target cells infected with HIV, the intensive treatment with drugs may be associated with the progressive replacement of part of the infected blood with healthy blood originating from compatible donors. The ultraintensive treatment method is difficult to apply but it is indispensable in the case of special diseases that cannot be efficiently treated by more simple unsophisticated methods. For the adaptation of this method to the real therapeutic situations it is mandatory that specialists doctors from many fields to join together within a team.
Cuvinte cheie: ad astra