Scopul nostru este sprijinirea şi promovarea cercetării ştiinţifice şi facilitarea comunicării între cercetătorii români din întreaga lume.
Autori: Anitei M, Ifrim M, Ewart MA, Cowan AE, Carson JH, Bansal R, Pfeiffer SE.
Editorial: J Cell Sci, 2006.
In the central nervous system, oligodendrocytes synthesize vast amounts of myelin, a multilamellar membrane wrapped around axons that dramatically enhances nerve transmission. A complex apparatus appears to coordinate trafficking of proteins and lipids during myelin synthesis, but the molecular interactions involved are not well understood. We demonstrate that oligodendrocytes express several key molecules necessary for the targeting of transport vesicles to areas of rapid membrane growth, including the exocyst components Sec8 and Sec6 and the multidomain scaffolding proteins CASK and Mint1. Sec8 overexpression significantly promotes oligodendrocyte morphological differentiation and myelin-like membrane formation in vitro; conversely, siRNA-mediated interference with Sec8 expression inhibits this process, and anti-Sec8 antibody induces a reduction in oligodendrocyte areas. In addition, Sec8 colocalizes, coimmunoprecipitates and cofractionates with the major myelin protein OSP/Claudin11 and with CASK in oligodendrocytes. These results suggest that Sec8 plays a central role in oligodendrocyte membrane formation by regulating the recruitment of vesicles that transport myelin proteins such as OSP/Claudin11 to sites of membrane growth.
Cuvinte cheie: myelin, membrane trafficking
Autori: Anitei M, Pfeiffer SE.
Editorial: Current Biology, 2006.
Myelin biogenesis is a complex process involving coordinated exocytosis, endocytosis, mRNA transport and cytoskeletal dynamics. Recent studies indicate that soluble neuronal signals may control the surface expression of proteolipid protein, a process that involves reduced endocytosis and/or increased transport carrier recruitment from an intracellular pool.
Cuvinte cheie: myelin, membrane trafficking
Autori: Baust T, Anitei M, Czupalla C, Parshyna I, Bourel L, Thiele C, Krause E, Hoflack B.
Editorial: MBC, 2008.
The AP-3 adaptor complex targets selected transmembrane proteins to lysosomes and lysosome-related organelles. We reconstituted its preferred interaction with liposomes containing the ADP ribosylation factor (ARF)-1 guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase), specific cargo tails, and phosphatidylinositol-3 phosphate, and then we performed a proteomic screen to identify new proteins supporting its sorting function. We identified approximately 30 proteins belonging to three networks regulating either AP-3 coat assembly or septin polymerization or Rab7-dependent lysosomal transport. RNA interference shows that, among these proteins, the ARF-1 exchange factor brefeldin A-inhibited exchange factor 1, the ARF-1 GTPase-activating protein 1, the Cdc42-interacting Cdc42 effector protein 4, an effector of septin-polymerizing GTPases, and the phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase IIIC3 are key components regulating the targeting of lysosomal membrane proteins to lysosomes in vivo. This analysis reveals that these proteins, together with AP-3, play an essential role in protein sorting at early endosomes, thereby regulating the integrity of these organelles.
Cuvinte cheie: lysosome biogenesis, membrane
Autori: Anitei M, Cowan AE, Pfeiffer SE, Bansal R.
Editorial: J Neurosci Res., Sep 16, 2008.
Rab3a, a small GTPase important for exocytosis, is uniquely up-regulated as oligodendrocytes enter terminal differentiation and initiate myelin biosynthesis. In this study, we analyze the role of this protein in oligodendrocyte morphological differentiation by using Rab3a overexpression and siRNAi-mediated Rab3a silencing. We found that Rab3a silencing delayed mature oligodendrocyte morphological differentiation but did not interfere with lineage progression of OL progenitors; this is consistent with the high levels of Rab3a expressed by mature oligodendrocytes compared with progenitor cells. Overexpression of GTP-bound, but not that of wild-type, Rab3a delayed OL morphological differentiation; this suggests that expression of a GTP-bound Rab3a mutant interferes with the normal function of endogenous Rab3a. We have also identified in oligodendrocytes two other exocytic small GTPases, Rab27B and RalA. Together, these findings indicate that Rab3a specifically stimulates morphological differentiation of mature oligodendrocytes and thus may be part of the necessary machinery for myelin membrane biogenesis. (c) 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Cuvinte cheie: oligodendrocyte, myelin, GTPase, membrane