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Autori: Robert van Leeuwen, Nils Erik Dahlen and Adrian Stan
Editorial: Physical Review, B74, p.195105, 2006.
We derive variational expressions for the grand potential or action in terms of the many-body Green function G which describes the propagation of particles and the renormalized four-point vertex which describes the scattering of two particles in many-body systems. The main ingredient of the variational functionals is a term we denote as the Xi-functional which plays a role analogously to the usual Phi-functional studied by Baym (G.Baym, Phys.Rev. 127, 1391 (1962)) in connection with the conservation laws in many-body systems. We show that any Xi-derivable theory is also Phi-derivable and therefore respects the conservation laws. We further set up a computational scheme to obtain accurate total energies from our variational functionals without having to solve computationally expensive sets of self-consistent equations. The input of the functional is an approximate Green function tildeG and an approximate four-point vertex tilde tildeGamma obtained at a relatively low computational cost. The variational property of the functional guarantees that the error in the total energy is only of second order in deviations of the input Green function and vertex from the self-consistent ones that make the functional stationary. The functionals that we will consider for practical applications correspond to infinite order summations of ladder and exchange diagrams and are therefore particularly suited for applications to highly correlated systems. Their practical evaluation is discussed in detail.
Cuvinte cheie: four-point vertex, variational functionals, conservation laws