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Autori: Singh K, Matsuyama S, Drazba JA, Almasan A.
Editorial: Autophagy, 8 (2), 2012.
Autophagy regulates cell survival and cell death upon various cellular stresses, yet the molecular signaling events involved are not well defined. Here, we established the function of a proteolytic Cyclin E fragment (p18-CycE) in DNA damage-induced autophagy, apoptosis, and senescence. p18-CycE was identified in hematopoietic cells undergoing DNA damage-induced apoptosis. In epithelial cells exposed to DNA damage, chronic but not transient expression of p18-CycE leads to higher turnover of LC3 I/II and increased emergence of autophagosomes and autolysosomes. Levels of p18-CycE, which was generated by proteolytic cleavage of endogenous Cyclin E, were greatly increased by chloroquine and correlated with LC 3II conversion. Preventing p18-CycE genesis blocked conversion of LC3 I to LC3 II. Upon DNA damage, cytoplasmic ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM) was phosphorylated in p18-CycE-expressing cells resulting in sustained activation of the adenosine-mono-phosphate-dependent kinase (AMPK). These lead to sustained activation of mammalian autophagy-initiating kinase ULK1, which was abrogated upon inhibiting ATM and AMPK phosphorylation. Moreover, p18-CycE was degraded via autophagy followed by induction of senescence. Both autophagy and senescence were prevented by inhibiting autophagy, which leads to increased apoptosis in p18-CycE-expressing cells by stabilizing p18-CycE expression. Senescence was further associated with cytoplasmic co-localization and degradation of p18-CycE and Ku70. In brief, chronic p18-CycE expression-induced autophagy leads to clearance of p18-CycE following DNA damage and induction of senescence. Autophagy inhibition stabilized the cytoplasmic p18-CycE-Ku70 complex leading to apoptosis. Thus, our findings define how chronic apoptotic stress and DNA damage initiate autophagy and regulate cell survival through senescence and/or apoptosis.
Cuvinte cheie: Autophagy, DNA damage, Senescence, p18-Cyclin E, AMPK, ULK1