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Paleoclimatic evolution in the Miocene from the Transylvanian Depression reflected in the fossil record.

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Editorial: Hart, M.B., Climates: Past, Present and Future, Geological Society Special Publication no. 181, p.55-64, 2000.


The palaeoclimate during the Miocene from the Transylvanian Depression (Romania) is interpreted mainly by the response of calcareous nannoplankton, microfauna (foraminifera), molluscs and mammals (rhinoceros) assemblages.
The first significant palaeoclimatical events can be recorded during early Miocene. The warming of the climate at the level of the Vima Formation was followed by a more important warming during Eggenburgian, remarked in the fossil record of the Corus Formation. During Ottnangian, a cooling episode was recorded in the Hida Formation, probably related with Atlantic and Boreal influences. The climate on land was probably subtropical, humid, but much lower compared to the Eggenburgian, as the remains of rhinoceros from this formation revealed.
The middle Miocene marine subtropical assemblages prevail In the Dej Formation (early Badenian), but towards its upper part subtropical species become scarce. The endemic elements, with boreal influences were recognized in Kossovian strata. On land, the Moravian rhinoceros also suggest a subtropical climate, with marshy, densely afforested areas. Another rhinoceros found in the upper part of Moravian, indicates a tendency of continentalization of the climate. The early Sarmatian started with a new short warming, followed again by a cooling episode (Feleac Formation).
The last significant warming produced in the Late Miocene, respectivelly during Pannonian (Lopadea Formation). The small aceratheres from the Pannonian suggest marshy areas with a relatively warm climate.

Cuvinte cheie: paleoclimatology, Transylvania, foraminifera, nannoplankton, vertebrates